The application of biotechnology in extermination

Locust is one of the important natural enemies of agriculture and animal husbandry. Once a food crop is plague-damaged, the yield can be reduced by 30%-70%, and 120,000 rations can be swallowed within a day. Similarly, locusts are also harmful to grassland. Important factors that cause major economic losses. In pastures in the western United States, there are hundreds of species of locusts, about 12-20 species causing economic losses, and 5-7 species have great destructive power, and some can eat every leaf of pasture. In China, crops, grasslands, and reeds in some provinces, autonomous regions, and other regions often suffer from locust plagues. In severe cases, they can eat plant leaves. In China's Penghu region of Taiwan, corn and other crops have also suffered locust plagues, causing major economic losses. In order to prevent and control the occurrence of locust plague, despite the rapid effect of using chemical pesticides, the use of large areas is neither safe nor easy to cause environmental pollution. In some places, ostriches and hens are also used to eliminate locusts, but once the locusts are infested, this biological method is not ideal. According to the results of domestic and international research on the treatment of radon, only the application of biotechnology, especially microbiological technology, can show its unique superiority: “1” separates and isolates pathogenic microorganisms from locusts and implements the strategy of “using poison to attack poison” to control the damage of locusts. The effective way. "2" uses effective microorganisms as a fungicide to prevent and control target pests. It can maintain the infectivity of the bacteria, continue to be effective, and expand the scope of control. The "3" effective anti-tuberculosis agent is not subject to seasonal restrictions and can be scaled to ensure supply. "4" The fungus is safe to use, does not harm plants, humans and livestock, has a protective effect on natural enemies of aphids, and is also conducive to the protection of the ecological environment. The "5" effective bactericide may gradually replace the chemical control method. "6" genetic engineering technology to transform sterilizing bacteria to further improve the infestation and effectiveness of fleas. The promotion and application of "7" bactericide will surely achieve very good economic and ecological benefits. However, the most important point is that the use of "toxic to attack poison" strategies to eliminate locusts in order to benefit the people is the core of bio-technical control of disasters, and there are many bright prospects for its research and development. The important progress made in the effective control of aphids using entomopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria is now highlighted. Fungal treatment of maggots Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Metarhizium anisopliae are known to be parasitic fungal pathogens of maggots. Strains can be isolated from maggots for screening, high-efficiency strains can be selected, or they can be made into fungicides. Or it can be used as a compound for killing cockroaches. After a small test or a successful pilot test, it will enter Daehan's cockroach test. The results of many tests have shown that the cockroach-killing effect is significant. These fungi are easy to produce, it can produce a large number of conidia, more conducive to the mass production of microbial agents, the development of the mites "composite fungicide" has entered the field test in Africa, North America, and achieved satisfactory results. Of course, effective fungus strains made from individual fungal strains are also satisfactory in practical applications. Researchers from the British Agricultural and Biological Science Center and an international tropical agriculture research institute selected a strain of Metarhizium flavoviride from 160 species of aphid pathogenic fungi for field trials to eliminate cockroaches and achieve satisfactory control effects. The fungus invades the chitinous layer of the insect and destroys its internal tissues and functions. After 5-12 days, the insects die. The corpse can release new fungal spores and spread them to infect other aphids. Once infested, the locusts cannot escape the fate of death. A researcher from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Germany discovered a fungus that showed extremely strong host-specificity. It was only effective in eliminating aphids, as long as the fungal spores penetrated into the mites and the spores germinated after germination. The body was covered in green, causing the worms to die through the intestines. In less than 12 days, 90% of the locusts were eliminated. It should be said that this kind of fungus that kills mites only has practical value. It is effective in killing mites, is safe to humans and animals, and does not pollute the environment. Researchers at the All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection in St. Petersburg, Russia, have selected a strain of fungal strains that are resistant to high temperatures and salinity. They have high invasiveness against aphids and can kill 95%-97% of locusts. In Africa, researchers at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Nigeria have discovered a fungus that kills aphids and kills earthworms. Its insecticidal efficacy lasts for a long period of time, that is, it remains fungicidal for a period of time. . Experiments have shown that the fungus can kill aphids and cockroaches within 4-10 days, and does not harm other insects, plants and humans. The cost of producing this fungus stubble preparation is only a fraction of that of chemical pesticides. At present, it is intended to do more extensive testing of the fungicide to verify the efficacy of its products; in addition, a company in South Africa has obtained the permission for the commercial production of the fungal agent. It seems that the fungus extermination preparations have shown a good momentum of development, and their insecticidal mechanisms still need to be studied in depth. In our country, we should pay enough attention to the biological bactericides and implement the “two-legged walk” principle: First, the key technologies for the introduction of fungi to treat fleas; the first is to actively carry out research on biological fleas. In terms of the former, the key technologies for the treatment of cockroaches by fungal insecticides introduced by the Ministry of Agriculture have been accepted in Inner Mongolia. The control efficacy of Metarhizium sp. formulations has reached 85% in Inner Mongolia; it has reached 89% in the Xinjiang region and it has continued control of aphids. At the same time, it proves that this fungus insecticide is safe and effective for extermination and does not pollute the environment. It is an effective measure to control grasshopper aphids. Researchers at the Institute of Biological Control of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences researched and developed a new generation of biologically controlled fungal preparations (metastatic strains of Metarhizium anisopliae) that have been used for biological control of grassland locusts in domestic grasslands. The results obtained show that the bactericide can be rapidly controlled The goal of high-density cockroaches is to achieve long-term transmission and control of cockroaches without disasters. Similarly, there are two advantages to using cocci agents: (1) do not pollute the environment; and (2) have a protective effect against natural enemies of aphids. The results obtained through small field comparison tests showed that the effective rate of extermination was 70% in 12 days and 89% in 30 days. The research demonstration and promotion in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Qinghai have been successively carried out. It can be seen from this that fungal control of locust disasters will surely show its superiority in many aspects. Bacteria treat mites Apart from the above-mentioned introduction of domestic and foreign fungi, and the achievements of mites, some bacteria also have the ability to kill mites. Researchers at Sichuan United University and other researchers isolated a bacterium from the yellow-spotted bamboo yellow and were identified as Dseudomonas pseudoaligenes. In laboratory tests, the bacteria had high infectivity and lethal effects on locusts. Several strains of Bacillus thuringiensis were screened, which have a strong infectivity and lethal effect on grasshoppers. The proposed production line with an annual output of 1,000 tons of fungicide is expected to enter industrial production. If they are made into a compound fungicide, it is possible to obtain a better flection effect. Practice has proved that these bacterial fleas are used to exterminate the host to show its specificity and do not cause harm to other animals. In short, to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture and have a good harvest, the effective prevention and control of pests, especially locust plagues, is of great significance. This is an important task for life science workers, especially agricultural scientists.

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