Hawthorn is one of the major cultivated crops in our province. Hawthorn pests mainly include black spot disease, soft rot disease, stem nematode disease, hawthorn hawkmoth, Spodoptera litura, bridge-building moth, and earthworms. In order to seize the quality and high yield of hawthorn, it will take comprehensive measures to deal with a variety of pests and weeds and effectively control its damage.
First, the nursery period. The targets for prevention and control during this period were melasma and stem nematode disease. The specific measures are:
1. Establish disease-free farmland and select disease-resistant and disease-resistant varieties. We must vigorously develop detoxification hawthorn and plant more resistant and disease-resistant varieties. Currently, there are Xuzhou 18 and Yushu No. 1 and No. 3, Lushu No. 6 and No. 7, and Beijing 553.
2, to cultivate disease-free strong seedlings. The disease-free plots were used as seedbeds, disease-free plots were used to cultivate seedlings, and disease-free seedlings were selected before seedlings. Black spot, stem nematode disease, injury, and frost damage were strictly excluded. Before growing seedlings, the lumps were soaked in warm water of 52-54Â°C for 10 minutes to kill viruses, nematodes, etc. that survived the lumps.
3. Seed soaking and spraying. Can be soaked or sprayed with 40% carbendazim 800-1000 times or 50% thiophanate-1500 times mixture.
Second, the seedling period. The main pests and diseases in this period of prevention and control are black spot disease, stem nematode disease, underground pests, and weed damage. Measures are:
1, using high cut seedlings. That is, when cutting the seedlings to leave the seedbed 30 cm to prevent seedlings with black spot and nematode disease.
2, drug treatment seedlings. Can be used 50% carbendazim 1000 times mixture soaking seedlings, for the recurrence of stem nematode disease, can be used 5% stemline spirit granules per acre 1-1.5 kg mixed soil treatment seedlings. For the re-emergence of the underground pests, before the planting, 15-25 kg of ammonium bicarbonate can be mixed with the farm fertilizer and applied to the plough. More than 80% of the underground pests can be eliminated, 15 kg of bran can be used, and 250 grams of phoxim can be used. Pesticide mix and farm fertilizer spread in the ridge, control effect is very good.
3, do a good job of chemical weeding. After the seedlings were planted, acetochlor 200-300 g was sprayed in a timely manner for full spraying, and weeding was not conducted within 1 week after spraying.
Third, the growth period. This period is mainly for the control of Hawthorn hawk moth, Spodoptera litura and bridge-building moths. The main measures:
1, lighting trapping. Use adult phototaxis to kill insects and reduce field pests. Moths such as black light can be used to attract adults.
2. Use pesticides scientifically and do a good job of chemical control. Mu can kill 50 grams or 80% dichlorvos 100 grams plus 50 kilograms of water spray to prevent the harm of Hawthorn hornworm, Spodoptera litura, bridge-building moth.
In addition, it should be combined with the mountain, in the winter ploughing and site preparation ridging, picking up the overwhelming insects, in the larvae period, mobilize the masses to manually capture pests.
Fourth, the collection period. This period is mainly to prevent melasma and soft rot. Agronomic measures are:
1, do a good job of cellar hygiene. It is best to use new storage. If you use an old cellar, remove one layer from the pit wall and burn it with sulfur powder at 15 grams per cubic meter, fumigate and seal the cellar mouth for 2 days, or spray 40% Carbendazim 1000 times solution to the pit wall.
2, choose healthy block storage. When the temperature dropped to 12-13Â°C, it was timely harvested. Strictly eliminate sickness, rottenness, and scars. Pay attention to the day of admission and enter the pit.
3. Reasonably regulate the temperature of the pits to ensure that the loquat blocks safely pass winter. After entering the pit, keep the cellar temperature at 34-38Â°C for 72 hours, then immediately ventilate and dampen to reduce the bacteria source. And master the storage period to keep the cellar temperature at 11-13 Â°C for a long time. Pay attention to late warming ventilation to prevent hypoxia.
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