Standard cultivation techniques of Agaricus bisporus

The mushroom, also known as white mushroom, is an edible fungus that has been cultivated most widely in the world, has a large amount of production, and is widely consumed. It is an important export-oriented commodity for China, and it provides a practical and feasible way for the comprehensive utilization of agricultural and sideline products.
First, the requirements of environmental conditions of Agaricus bisporus
1. Nutrition: Agaricus bisporus is a saprophytic fungus and cannot be used for photosynthesis. The nutrients such as carbon source, nitrogen source, and trace elements required for growth and development are all derived from culture materials.
2, temperature: Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth temperature 6-32 °C, suitable growth temperature 22-24 °C; fruiting body growth temperature 5-22 °C, suitable growth temperature 13-18 °C.
3, moisture: the moisture content of the culture material should be controlled at about 60%, the humidity is too high (water content more than 68%) or too low (less than 50%), the hyphae do not eat. During the growth phase of mycelium, the relative humidity of the air should be controlled at 60-70%; at the growth stage of fruit bodies, the relative humidity of the air should be controlled at 85-90%. Excessive air humidity or dryness is not conducive to the growth of Agaricus bisporus. Cover soil water content should be controlled at 18-20%.
4, air: Agaricus bisporus is aerobic fungus, in the growth and development process requires adequate oxygen, so the growth phase should pay attention to ventilation.
5, light: the entire growth phase of Agaricus bisporus does not require light, during the mushrooming, the dark environment mushroom body white, good quality.
6, pH: Agaricus bisporus growth in the pH range of 5-8, the optimum PH value is 6.5-7.0, cover soil PH value of 7-8, culture material PH value of 7-7.5, can inhibit the growth of bacteria .
Second, the selection of good mushroom varieties has a great influence on the yield of mushrooms. It requires good yield, good quality, mushroom white, mushroom-shaped garden, short and thick shank, not easy to open umbrella, texture tender and elastic, strong resistance, The varieties with higher normal temperature and lower temperature are more stable and have stronger resistance to disease. At present, the main planting variety in our city is AS2796, other varieties grown in our country are 176, Zhejiang agriculture series and so on.
Third, culture material composting technology (a) the types of culture materials
1. Ingredients in compost: Ingredients are by-products of agricultural production, such as straw, wheat straw, corn stalks, peanut vines, and rattan vines can be used to grow mushrooms. Animals such as humans, horses, cows, pigs, sheep, chickens, ducks and other animals can be used as a kind of mushroom manure, and the main ingredient accounts for about 90-95% of the total amount of compost.
2. Composting materials: Mainly supplement the nutrient components in the main ingredient, adjust the C/N ratio, and improve the pH of the culture material. Mainly includes organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, such as cake fertilizer, chemical fertilizer is mainly N fertilizer, such as urea, ammonium bicarbonate, compound fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer has superphosphate, other minerals gypsum powder lime.
(2) Formulas of culture materials The formulation of culture materials is divided into two categories: fecal formulas and synthetic formulas. Formulas for mushroom cultures can be selected based on local resources. The general principle is that the ratio of C/N is reasonable, and stockpiling is conducted. The material C/N is 33-30:1 is more reasonable, the following is a representative formula of China's culture materials.
Mushroom culture material general formula (110m2 dosage)

Culture materials

High cow dung

(kg)

Medium cow dung consumption

(kg)

Low cow dung consumption

(kg)

Dry cow dung

3000

1500

750

Chicken manure

500

-

-

Rapeseed cake

200

250

250

Urea

20

10

10

Wheatgrass

900

1250

1500

straw

600

750

1,000

lime

50

50

50

Gypsum powder

75

50

40

Superphosphate

40

35

35


(c) The method of cultivating the materials and consolidating the materials shall be carried out in mid-August in the city.
1, culture materials conventional fermentation technology (slightly
2. Secondary fermentation technology of culture materials (1) Outdoor pre-fermentation of culture materials: pre-wet pre-wet, pre-wet, stacking, turning, and stacking. The dung should be fully soaked, and the principle of less water transfer should be adopted. Urea and cake fat should be added when building a heap. Gypsum and superphosphate should be added at the time of turning, usually three times, for 13-15 days. Interval 5 In 3, 3, and 3 days, the turning time can also be limited by the weather. When the heap temperature reaches 70-75°C, it can be turned.
(2) Indoor fermentation of the culture materials: The fermented materials are fed into the house (shed) and stacked on the upper part of the bed frame. The bottom layer does not discharge. The material is ridged and piled on the bed frame to facilitate the self heating of the material and increase the material temperature. After the material enters the house (shed), close the door and window, put it into the coal ball furnace to warm up or pass in hot steam, and the temperature rises rapidly to 60°C-62°C and then maintain for 4-6 hours. This phase is called the warming phase, which is conducive to the growth of thermophilic microorganisms, and can also kill germs, germs, and pests. Then cool down to about 52°C, keep for 3-4 days, and enter the heat preservation phase, so that beneficial medium-temperature thermophilic microorganisms (mainly humicola and actinomycetes) can multiply and grow. The activity of these microorganisms can decompose macromolecular nutrients in compost into simple, small-molecule nutrients that are easily absorbed by the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus. At the end of the fermentation, humicola and actinomycetes ceased to grow, and the bacterial proteins in the bacteria were nutrients that were easily absorbed and utilized by the mycelia of Agaricus bisporus. The incubation phase is the main stage of post-fermentation. The length of time depends on the degree of pre-fermentation of the raw material. The material is longer and the material is shorter. After the heat preservation phase, it is the cooling phase. The temperature of the material is gradually reduced to 45°C-50°C for about 12 hours. When the temperature drops below 45°C, the temperature of the material is rapidly lowered by opening the door and the whole process of the post-fermentation is over. After the completion of the fermentation of the material standards are: the material color is brown, scented, slightly sweet bread smell, no acid odor, no ammonia taste; grass is elastic, shiny, a pull can break; moisture content of about 62%, There is 2-3 drops of water in hand; the pH is 7-7.5.
Fourth, sowing (a) culture material thickness: 50-60 kg per square meter culture materials, material thickness 15-20cm more appropriate.
(B) pre-seeding inspection: To use strains of bacteria in about 60 days, no pollution, and strong viable strains, culture material humidity of about 65%, the material's PH value of 7.0-7.5. In addition, ammonia gas is not required in the material.
(3) Sowing time: The temperature should be controlled at about 25°C, and sowing should be conducted when the temperature is lower than 28°C. The city is generally in mid-September.
(D) sowing method and sowing volume: generally used sowing, broadcast per square meter soy granule species 1-1.2 bottles.
(E) after sowing bacteria: the general method of closing bacteria, in the 2-3 days after sowing, closed shed for 3 days, outdoor ventilation at night when more than 30 °C, promote mycelial germination. 3 days after the beginning of micro-ventilation, after gradually increase the ventilation, so that the temperature within the shed below 25 °C, such as the bed is too dry, it is appropriate to indirectly spray water, that is covered with long fiber cloth or newspaper, water spray on the cloth or On paper.
5. Cover soil to change the concentration of carbon dioxide in the culture material, so that the mycelium of the mushroom is transferred from the vegetative growth period to the reproductive growth period, forming a fruit body, and keeping the moisture of the culture material from being lost, which is conducive to the development of the fruit body. Secondly, the cover soil contains many beneficial microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas odorous bacillus, which can promote the formation of fruiting bodies. The third overburden layer can support the fruiting bodies and can regulate the wet and sharp temperature changes of the culture materials and protect the culture materials. The mycelium grows and develops.
1. Earth-cover preparation: 25-30 kg of coarse soil (1.5-2cm) and 15-18 kg of fine soil (0.5-1cm) should be prepared for each m2 bacterial bed. 0.5-1% of lime, formaldehyde and dichlorvos should be added to the fine and fine soil. Disinfect the insecticide and cover it with a plastic cloth.
2, cover soil thickness: 4-5cm thick (2.5-3cm thick soil), fine soil (1-2cm) is appropriate.
3. Covering time and methods: When the mycelium grows to the bottom of the bed, most of the hyphae will cover the soil. Generally, in mid-October, cover the coarse soil and cover the fine soil every 7 days.
4. Water transfer from the overburden: 3 days of soil spraying on the coarse soil, but the use of dry soil pre-wet, after the transfer of water is better. Therefore, the general spraying of water within 1-2 days after the application of coarse soil, for 3 consecutive days, to grasp the two light and medium weight in the water consumption, that is, the first day spray 2.5-3.5kg/m2, the second day of spray 4.5kg /m2, The third day of spraying water 2.5-3.0kg/m2. A total of 10-11kg/m2 water spray within 3 days. For example, the amount of water sprayed on dry earth can also be increased to 13.5kg/m2. The method of spraying water uses the method of spraying lightly and spraying water recirculated. Do not spray water too much at once to prevent moisture from flowing into the material and prevent the growth of mycelium. The specific standard of water spray is that the coarse soil has no white heart, the texture is loose, the hands can pinch the soil particles, and the sticking hands are not sticky. At this time, the moisture content of the coarse soil is about 20%. After the water is sprayed, it should be closed. Mycelium.
In addition, it is necessary to appropriately increase or decrease the amount of water according to factors such as the weather being dry and hot, the humidity of rain, the amount of water evaporated, and the speed of water absorption. After the soil has been covered, if the room temperature is higher than 28°C, coarse soil water may not be sprayed, and the water spray starts at a temperature below 25°C. Lime water must be prepared before spraying, and all coarse soil must be wetted. When the inspection is done, the soil is white and the water is easy to eat.
When the mycelium extends into the gap of coarse soil, it begins to cover the first fine soil, and the amount of finely covered soil is about 9-13.5kg.m2, which accounts for about one-third of the gross thickness, so that there is at least one on the coarse soil. Fine soil cover shall prevail, requiring uniform smearing and drying, so that the day is covered with fine soil sprayed with water on the same day, to see the dry and wet conditions of coarse soil water consumption, generally spray 0.9-1.4kg/m2 per day, must not be sprayed wet.
Sixth, the management of fruiting period (a) moisture management The mushroom house's water management includes the culture material and the covering soil often maintains the moist condition, as well as makes the mushroom room have the appropriate air relative humidity in different stages.
Generally, in the stage of mycelial growth, the amount of water required is small. After fruit bodies are formed, the amount of water required increases, especially during the season of mushroom production, requiring a large amount of water supply. However, mycelium growth, primordium formation, and fruit body development are continuously and continuously performed. In addition, the appropriate temperature is determined by the temperature and the dryness and humidity of the material and the mud in different periods. If water is used properly, the mycelium will be prosperous, the fruiting bodies will be large, and the tide of mushrooming will increase. The high yield and stable yield will be obtained. The above factors must be comprehensively considered.
The moisture regulation of the mushroom house mainly sprays water on the cover soil and increases the relative humidity in the mushroom house. The moisture content of the general material should be maintained at 60%-65%, if the material contains too much moisture, up to 72%, the capillary pores of the aggregate structure will be occupied by the water, oxygen deficiency, affect the growth of mycelium, to be in the material In the hole, and increase the ventilation of the mushroom house, so that the material in the water to speed up evaporation, reduce the moisture content of the material, is conducive to mycelial growth.
If there is insufficient moisture in the material, water should be sprayed on the bed to increase the moisture content on the bed so that the mycelium can obtain sufficient moisture. In addition, increasing the relative humidity of the air can reduce the evaporation of water in the bed surface. Generally, during the growth phase of mycelia, the relative humidity of the air in the mushroom house is controlled at 70%-80%. At the development stage of the fruit body, the relative humidity of the air increases to about 85%-90%, and does not exceed 95%. If the relative humidity of the air is too large, it can easily lead to the occurrence of diseases.
According to the different growth period of the mushroom, the corresponding water spray method is adopted. When the mycelium reaches the fine soil surface, it is immediately covered with a layer of fine soil, 0.5 cm thick, so that the mycelium does not rise up, and water is stopped. 2 days, chasing the horizontal growth of the mycelia in the fine soil, thickening the mycelium and kneading it into the mycelium, you can spray a “membrane water” (make the fine soil flattened, round and soft soil) Pinch flat). When soybean-sized young mushrooms appear on the soil-covered layer, they are sprayed with a heavy “mushrooming water” (mastering the fine soil and making it flat rather than sticky, and the rough soil is pinched flat and cracked). This is a method of managing heavy water. When the water transfer time is correct and the amount of water is appropriate, the mushroom fruit bodies will grow in batches, the mushroom on the bed will be neat, and the tide of the mushroom will be obvious. There will be fruiting peaks. However, if there is insufficient experience, it is not appropriate to use the "heavy water method" but instead adopt a method of light jet spraying to gradually increase the water content of the bed soil. Since there is not much water used per day, it can meet the needs of fruit body development, and often there are Mushrooms are harvested, but there is no apparent fruiting peak. Where the mycelial growth of the mushroom bed is poor or the operators lack experience, this method is safer.
Usually when the mushroom is sprayed more and more, the mushroom less spray; the rainy days less spray or not spray; mushroom house good moisturizing spray, and vice versa spray; near the doors and windows and other ventilated multi-spray, otherwise less spray. Spray nozzles should be raised higher to prevent sprays from impacting mycelium and mushroom buds. At the same time after the water to ventilate, not wet stuffy. When the temperature is higher than 20°C, stop the water and wait until the temperature is normal (below 20°C) to draw water again.
The temperature change of the mushroom during the mushrooming period is firstly high and then low. When the first, second and third batches of mushrooms are produced, the yield is higher, and the yield of the later batches of mushrooms is gradually reduced. Therefore, the water transfer work of the mushroom house should be lighter and lighter. To the late autumn mushrooms, the water should be sprayed or stopped. The early water of the autumn mushroom should be “three look” to see the mycelial growth and fruit body development status of the mushroom bed. Look at what variety it is and look at climate conditions three times. In recent years, the use of heavy water has been used as a means of water and water. If it is an aerial species, the mushroom can be sprayed with mushroom water on the second day after the ebb, and it can be combined with the No. 2 mushroom robust agent, which sprays 1/200 of the robust agent 0.45 kg per square meter. Can increase production. Such as "Zhe Nong No. 1" this type of high-yield and water-intensive varieties, to be in the day the ebb tide can immediately improve the surface of the bed that is sprayed, otherwise it will affect the tide under the mushroom. In the period of mushrooming, the villous mycelium is prosperous, the number of water sprays is large, and the amount of water is large. It is easy to destroy the hyphae, especially for the air-breeding species. It is necessary to produce one side of the mushroom and raise the bacteria; after the ebb, it is necessary to wait for the formation of the young mushroom. When you spit out mushroom water. The temperature is high and the amount of evaporation is large. According to the situation, heavy water can be used to lightly adjust and lightly weight first, so that it is beneficial to the mycelium mushroom, otherwise the mushroom is thin and the yield is not high.
The difference between heavy water and light water is the amount of water used in a day, not the size of the spray. The spraying period should be moderate, the spraying should be oblique, and the spray boom should be high, not low and straight. Light water means moisturizing and air water. In general, the moisture management of autumn mushrooms must be done in three hits and three shots. Three dozen are: a dozen of mushroom water, two dozen air moisturizers, three dozens of slightly alkaline water; three do not play is, one does not play high-temperature water, two do not produce well water, and three do not play over the head of water (fall tide).
(2) Mushrooms are gas-exchanged to absorb oxygen and release phosphorus dioxide. The activities of many other microorganisms in the culture materials also continuously release phosphorus dioxide, free ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other gases. Tests have shown that fruit body formation is hindered when the CO2 concentration exceeds 0.5%. The ventilation of mushroom house can introduce fresh air and eliminate excessive harmful gases (CO2, NH3, H2S). At the same time ventilation can also adjust the relative humidity of the air in the mushroom house.
Qiu Mushrooms have high temperatures at the early stage and can open and close the windows sooner or later to reduce the temperature of the mushroom houses, which is beneficial to the development of fruit bodies.
Autumn mushrooms, such as the temperature below 12 °C, then pay attention to insulation, in the afternoon when the temperature is high, ventilation, ventilation, close the window insulation sooner or later. If the mushroom room is poorly ventilated, odors such as odor, musty, etc. may occur, and a large number of white molds occur on the mushroom bed. If the smell of bleaching powder is smelled, there may be other bacteria in the material.
(3) After clearing the mushroom on the bedside, more sterilized mushrooms, dead mushrooms, and old roots are left on the bedside. These can easily cause the growth of pathogenic bacteria, aggravate the spread of diseases, and affect the mycelial growth and fruit body formation of mushrooms. Therefore, they should be cleared away in time with tweezers. After leaving the cavity, it is necessary to promptly make up the fine soil with adjusted pH and moisture, and make the bed flat to prevent the occurrence of low-lying areas, so as not to damage the hyphae.
(D) Anti-autumn mushrooms in the late high-temperature period in the middle and late October of the Yangtze River Valley in different years there are different degrees of high-temperature weather, sometimes there are more frequent, sometimes fewer times. The late high temperature often reaches 24-25 °C, the duration is long and short, long 3-5 days, short 1-2 days, if the management does not pay attention, the mycelium encounters high temperature, and spray water, will make the material, The hyphae shrunk in the casing soil and the small mushrooms died in batches. Not only did the fall of the autumn mushrooms decrease, but also the yield of the spring mushroom was reduced in the second year. Therefore, in this period of time, often listen to weather forecasts, such as the forecast of high temperatures above 22-24 °C, mushroom house should immediately stop spraying, open more windows and doors, strengthen ventilation, cooling and increase the oxygen in the mushroom house, increase the mushroom Resistance, reduce dead mushrooms.
In addition, it is also possible to adopt roof covering pine pine branches, rice straw and other materials, mushroom farmers spray air water, the ground pouring well water, mushroom house south shade shelter and other measures. In the event of a high temperature, when a large number of small mushrooms die, wait until the temperature drops below 20°C, clear the bed in time, pick up the dead mushroom buds and old yellow mycelium bundles, level the bed, and spray them. Nutrient solution, strengthen ventilation, make a good mushroom.
(V) After a reasonable batch of 1-2 batches of autumn mushroom production, a large amount of nutrients in the culture medium is absorbed and utilized by the mushroom hyphae. Therefore, the 3rd and 4th batches of mushrooms will decline, such as the reduction of the amount of mushrooms, the mushroom shape becomes smaller, the increase of thin-skinned mushrooms, and more withering buds, affecting mushroom production. The topdressing fertilizer should be promptly and reasonably increased to promote the absorption of nutrients by the mushroom mycelium for the normal development of the mushroom fruit body, so that the mycelium can continue to maintain its mushroom production capacity. Commonly used top dressing is spraying production increase agent. During fruiting, when the fruit body has rice to soybean size, the No. 2 mushroom robust agent produced by Zhejiang Agricultural University can be sprayed for 1-2 times, each time 1/200 of the healthy agent diluent 0.45 per square meter. Kg, to promote the development of fruiting bodies, improve the yield and quality of mushrooms, can make mushroom fruit body color white, round, cover thick handle, soluble solid content increased, and can enhance the mushroom's heat resistance and cold resistance.
VII. The collection period of mushroom harvest varies by region. Autumn mushrooms in the Yangtze River Valley are harvested from around October to mid-December, and spring mushrooms are harvested before the end of March-May. And China's southern provinces (regions), such as Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, etc., from the beginning of harvest in November, until the following year in April or early May can be continuously mushroom, continuous harvest. Harvesting must be timely to ensure the quality and yield of mushrooms. When harvesting, it must be done in a light and fast manner. The blade should be fast and the cutting should not leave any mechanical injury or mud. Post-harvest grade standards, strict classification.
VIII. Overwintering management In the Yangtze River basin and northern provinces, cold winter, mushroom room temperature is often below 5 °C, mushroom fruit body to stop growing, so from late December to early March next year, the mushroom is discontinued, the hyphae go into hibernation , mushroom house can take over winter management. 1 Clean the bed surface, pick the old root, dead mushroom or fungus on the mushroom bed; 2 Drill the hole, use a wooden stick to drill holes from the bottom of the bed to the bed, or dip the material once to eliminate the bad gas in the material; 3 bed fine soil. After several harvests by the mushroom, the material surface will be uneven, not covering a layer of fine soil, and the bed will be flattened; 4 strengthen the ventilation, focus on ventilation at noon; 5 spray water once a week, spray volume 0.5kg/m2.
(A) sooner or later, water use of spring mushroom mushroom water management is related to the temperature rise sooner or later, and decided by the mushroom bed mycelium growth will be sooner or later. The bed mycelium grows well and can be sprayed in mid-March. The mycelial growth potential is moderate. It can begin in mid-March, and the water in the mud layer can be gradually adjusted by means of light spraying and spraying. Poultry houses with poor mycelial growth potential should be carefully sprayed with spring water. Spring temperature changes are large, hot and cold, and unstable. Therefore, the water spray period of spring mushroom is postponed until the temperature rises in late March and begins to stabilize. Water spray.
(B) high temperature, Paula mushroom due to high temperatures often make the end of the spring mushroom production period, affecting production. Therefore, anti-high temperature methods can be used to prolong the mushrooming period and increase the yield of spring mushroom. Anti-high temperature measures include: 1 roof cover branches shaded; 2 roof water spray cooling; 3 indoor spray air or mushroom house floor spray well water cooling; 4 ventilation time changed in the morning and evening.
(C) timely control of pests and diseases during the production of spring mushroom, climate warmth, the occurrence of pests and diseases will gradually increase, to early detection, early prevention and treatment, the use of anti-heavy on the principle of governance.
(D) After the dismantling of the disinfected spring mushroom, it is necessary to remove the waste as soon as possible to prevent the propagation of pests and diseases in the waste. Clean the bed frame and coat the wall and ceiling of the mushroom house with lime slurry once to keep the house clean and free of pests and diseases.

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