1. Traditional Chinese medicine extraction and separation method
In the production of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, the traditional extraction and separation methods are mainly organic solvent extraction, mainly including boiling method, reflux method, dipping method, percolation method, water extraction and alcohol precipitation method, alcohol extraction method, acid-base method, Settling, filtration, centrifugation, salting out, ion exchange and crystallization.
Traditional Chinese medicine formulas are different, and the ingredients are very complicated. Common extraction methods have problems affecting drug efficiency, complicated steps, high energy consumption, low purity, technical requirements, and large consumption of organic solvents. The requirements of both the market supply and demand, and the withdrawal of technological competition in the future are also inevitable.
2. Modern extraction and separation method of traditional Chinese medicine
In recent years, many new technologies have emerged in the extraction and separation of traditional Chinese medicines. The application of these new technologies has enabled Chinese herbal medicines to meet the traditional Chinese medicine theory and achieve the goal of reducing costs and increasing the yield and purity of active ingredients. The modernization process has laid the foundation for China's Chinese medicine to enter the international market. The new extraction and separation technology is introduced as follows.
(1) Supercritical fluid extraction
Supercritical fluid extraction of SFE is a method in which a fluid in a supercritical state is used as an extractant to extract and separate a medicinal component of a Chinese medicinal material from a liquid or a solid. SFE technology has high extraction efficiency, short production cycle, easy to find new active ingredients in natural plants, rarely loses volatile components or destroys physiologically active substances, has no solvent residue, and has high product quality. At the same time, this technology can be combined with other analytical separation techniques to perform component analysis and content determination of the extract and to provide high purity samples. Compared with the traditional Soxhlet extraction method, supercritical CO has the advantages of short time consumption and small volume usage in separating and purifying free cholesterol in egg food.
(2) Ultrasonic extraction technology
Ultrasonic extraction technology UE uses the cavitation of ultrasonic waves to accelerate the dissolution of active components of plants. In addition, the secondary effects of ultrasonic waves, such as mechanical vibration, emulsification, diffusion, crushing, chemical effects, etc., can also accelerate the diffusion and release of the components to be extracted. Mix with solvent to facilitate extraction. The technology has the advantages of short extraction time, high yield, no heating, and low temperature extraction, which is beneficial to the protection of active ingredients. Li et al. studied the extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., indicating that the ultrasonic treatment efficiency is higher than the traditional extraction method. Jin Ying et al. studied the ultrasonic method of apple polyphenols in the ultrasonic extraction conditions of apple polyphenols, and compared with the common solvent extraction method, it was found that the ultrasonic extraction efficiency was high, reaching 94.12%.
(3) Microwave extraction
Microwave extraction of MA was first proposed by Ganzler in 1986. Microwave extraction refers to techniques and methods for extracting various chemical constituents from natural medicinal plants, minerals, and animal tissues in a microwave reactor using a suitable solvent. Due to the strong penetrating power of the microwave, the inner and outer parts of the reactant can be heated uniformly and rapidly at the same time, which can shorten the production time, reduce the energy consumption, reduce the amount of solvent and the generation of waste, and at the same time increase the yield and the extract. purity. It has been reported that the extraction of mogroside from dried mangosteen by microwave-assisted water extraction shows that the extraction rate of this method is 7015%, which is 45% higher than the conventional water extraction method and shortened by 50%.
(4) Membrane extraction and separation technology
The membrane extraction and separation technology uses the pressure as the driving force to realize the separation of the solute and the solvent, and operates at normal temperature without phase change and low energy consumption. The use of membrane technology, including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, can achieve material separation in the original biological system environment, can efficiently concentrate the accumulated products, and effectively remove impurities. Vincze et al. used membrane separation technology to collect seabuckthorn juice from Chinese seabuckthorn and further produce products such as instant tea. Cai uses a selective membrane to extract and isolate betaine from betaine samples, and the salt removal rate reaches 99.14%, which has achieved excellent results.
(5) Molecular distillation
Molecular distillation, also known as short-path distillation, is a relatively new liquid-liquid separation technique, especially for high-boiling, heat-sensitive and oxide-based separations. The distillation temperature is lower than the boiling point of the material, the distillation pressure is low, the heating time is short, the degree of separation is the same, and the separation cost of the boiling point material can be greatly reduced, and the heat sensitive material is excellently protected. The molecular distillation is used to dealcoholize the dry red wine, so that the ethanol content of the finished wine is reduced from 11.5% to less than 0.5%, and the Zui maintains the flavor, taste and color of the original wine to a large extent.
3. Development direction of Chinese medicine extraction and separation
The traditional Chinese medicine formulas are different and the composition is complex. Different extraction methods have different extraction rates for different active ingredients of different drugs. The usage and dosage and extraction process conditions have great influence on the quality of finished products. Therefore, according to the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicines and desired target products, Selecting different methods for extraction, or a combination of multiple extraction methods, Zui may retain the active ingredients and improve the extraction efficiency of the effective components.
With the application of modern Chinese medicine extraction technology, the production of traditional Chinese medicine will surely develop in the direction of clear controllable products and strict quality, and fundamentally improve the scientific and technological content of traditional Chinese medicine products, making the traditional Chinese medicine field modern, scientific, industrialized and fine. The direction of chemicalization and standardization is moving forward to realize the leap-forward development of China's traditional Chinese medicine industry.
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