The bulbous mushroom is native to Europe and the United States and was introduced to China in the 1980s. The fresh mushroom meat is delicate and has the clear flavor of wild mushrooms. The dried mushrooms have rich aroma and delicious taste. Well received by consumers.
First, the cultivation season
Generally Yichun, autumn cultivation. When the temperature is stable at about 18cC, it is better to push forward for 50 days.
Second, the venue selection
Choose sunny, sheltered, near water, no water, loose soil, humus-rich land. Can also use orchard or winter free field cultivation.
Topsoil piled aside for cover soil. The beak is 10 to 15 centimeters high and 120 centimeters wide. Leave 40 cm walkway and open a drainage ditch around.
Before the feeding, the 1% tea seed cake was poured on the cake to prevent flooding, and the dichlorvos solution was sprayed on and around the pot to control insect pests. Orchards need to withdraw the "termite mirex" and "termite powder" to kill ants.
Third, cultivation materials processing
Soak straw and other straw, so that it sucks enough water to reduce the pH and soften. Change the water 1 or 2 times a day to avoid rancidity. Straw immersed for 36 hours, wheat straw, corn stalk, bean stalk requires 48 hours. There is no need to add supplementary materials and fecal month bar, otherwise it will affect mycelial growth. When sowing, the temperature is higher than 23 Â°C, the cultivation materials need to be pre-stacked, piled into a width of 2 meters, a height of 1.5 meters, an unlimited length, require tight, 3 days after the turn, and then by 2 to 3 days will be turned over 1 Second, the material needs to be shaken and diverted so that the moisture content can reach about 75% and can be sown. If the temperature at the time of sowing is low, there is no need to pre-pile.
Fourth, shop material sowing
On the first floor, it is 8-10 cm thick, then broadcast 50% of the bacteria, the seeds are spread, the grass seeds are quailed and the size of the pigeons is sowed, the second layer is 10-12 cm thick, and the rest is broadcast. Strains, the third layer thickness 4 to 5 cm. Requires stratified compaction. 25 kg of dried material per square meter, 3 bottles of straw or 2 bottles of wheat. If the temperature is still high, a wooden rod can be used to drill a 6 cm diameter cave every 30 centimeters on the surface of the material until it reaches the bottom of the material to facilitate heat dissipation. Finally cover moistened sacks or newspaper moisturizers.
V. Fungus management
1. Water transfer. Within 20 days after sowing, do not spray water directly on the mushroom bed, only spray on the cover, avoid leakage inside the material, in case of rain should be covered with film rain, exposed after the rain, the water within the trench should be ruled out in a timely manner.
After 3 days of sowing, the hyphae began to germinate. After 20 days, the hyphae accounted for more than 1/2 of the entire material layer. At this time, the material surface was partially dry and white, and the local water spray should be used to increase the humidity, so that less spray and light spray were required. Multi-spray, little or no spray in the middle part of the skull. If the amount of water spray is too large or excessive, hyphae may be degraded.
2. Temperature control. The required material temperature is controlled at 20~30~C, preferably 25~C. After sowing, the thermometer should be inserted into the material and the temperature change should be observed every morning and evening. If the material temperature is higher than 30, remove the membrane and ventilate it. Spray cold water on the material surface covering to cool it; if the material temperature is lower than 20~C, cover the grass curtain in the morning and evening to thicken the covering and cover the film. When there is a sun during the day, remove the cover, cover only the film, accept the sunlight, and increase the temperature and temperature of the material.
Six, cover management
Choose a fertile, loose, slightly acidic, humus-rich loam, 30 days after sowing, when the mycelium is nearly full of material layer, cover the surface of the material, 3 to 4 cm thick, and hit the circulating water to adjust the wet covering layer. After 3 days of covering the soil, the hyphae can be seen crawling to the soil. At this time, we must keep the soil wet, spray more when the water is sprayed, and do not leak material. Pay attention to ventilation and control the air humidity to 85% to 90%. When the mycelium grows up on the soil surface, it should be removed from the cover, and the water should be stopped and cooled to prevent the hyphae from being prolonged and the hyphae laid down. At this time, the mycelium in the soil layer gradually formed a bundle of bacteria, which was kinked into a small white primordium and developed into a bud.
Seven, mushroom management
It takes 15 to 20 days from the cover soil to mushrooming. The climate is relatively dry at this stage, and management is focused on moisturizing and enhancing ventilation. Keep the covering and the soil wet, sunny days do a fine fog spray, avoid excessive water, in particular to prevent water from flowing into the material. The surface relative humidity is controlled at 90%-95%, which promotes mushrooming. When there are a large number of fruiting bodies in the surface, the amount of ventilation needs to be increased. The suitable temperature of the bulbous mushroom is 14~25~C, and less than 4~C will not grow mushrooms. In order to produce more mushrooms and produce good mushrooms, if the temperature is lower than 14Â°C, additional sheds should be added to increase the coverage and reduce the water spray to increase the material temperature. In the frosty period, stop the water while increasing the cover, so that the small buds can safely pass winter.
VIII. Pest Control
The main competitive bacteria in the cultivation of the raw material of the common bulb mushroom are cockle umbrellas and manure bowls. It is mainly spread by poor quality forage materials. Therefore, the choice of ingredients should be fresh, dry, and sun-disinfected before cultivation. If ghosts are found during cultivation, they must be burned or buried in a timely manner to prevent nutrients and propagation from contaminating the material. Stropharia capsularis has strong resistance, careful control of temperature and moisture in the early cultivation period, so that the mycelium grows robustly and vigorously, occupying advantages so as to inhibit the growth of other bacteria.
Common insect pests are fleas, hoppers, mushroom mosquitoes, ants, etc., can be sprayed on the rake and the surrounding area before spraying the insecticide, bactericidal mixture, usually spray coverings and walkways, all around. The ants use the red ant to withdraw from the ant road or the ant nest, and the termites use the termite powder to spray the ant nest to kill.
Mollusks (ie, cockroaches) are caught in the evening or early morning, or lettuce leaves are placed next to the evening mushroom farm. The leaves are picked up the next morning, and the leaves will climb a lot, and they can also be sprayed with 5% saline solution around the mushrooms.
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