Apple rotten fruit disease mainly includes rotenia, black rot, anthracnose, brown rot, and epidemic rot, all of which can turn good fruit into defective fruit, affecting the yield and quality of the fruit, thereby reducing the profit of the orchard.
Apple rot pathogens typically infect fruits from the young fruit stage (May to July) and then assume a latent state. Fruits form in the near-maturity (8-9 months) of autumn fruits and then begin to develop symptoms after a short period of time. Especially in the late rainy season, it is extremely prone to occur under conditions of warm and humid conditions.
Therefore, it is suggested that friends of the farmers must conscientiously and comprehensively do a good job of ensuring fruit and promoting income.
1. Strengthen the cultivation and management to improve the disease resistance of the tree From the beginning of August, combine spraying with 3-4 sprays of poly confectionery, high beauty, and foliar protection, rich potassium and 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate. 10-15 days. Take a good look at the land and use the water; stop ring-cutting and girdling, trim the fall crops in due course, and eliminate the branches and branches of the pests, leggy branches, and branches, and the dense branches and thin branches, to facilitate ventilation; Bags were also used to remove some of the infested fruit, fruit, rust, malformed fruit, and dried fruit, in order to reduce nutrient consumption and enhance tree vigor to improve the stress resistance of the tree.
2. Scientific selection of drugs for appropriate prevention and control After August and September, it is not only the mature period of late-maturing apples but also the epidemic stage of spread of germs. At this time, it should be sprayed according to weather conditions.
Generally, when there is no rain or little rain, it can be carried out according to the routine. If the rainfall is high and the temperature and humidity are high, the interval should be appropriately shortened, and the frequency of application should be increased and the use of systemic sterilization and protective fungicides should be alternately used. The bactericide is 68.75% esafety 1500 times liquid, 10% elder 2500-3000 times liquid, bactericidal 1200-1500 times, 70% thiophanate-methyl 800 times, and 800 times 80% Dasheng M-45 liquid. , 40% Fuxing 800-1000 times fluid, there are people more commonly used Bordeaux mixture. In the formulation of pesticides, the addition of quantitative synergists and penetrants will not only increase drug efficacy, have a long residual effect, but also be resistant to rainwater erosion. The control effect is quite good.
3, pay attention to the quality of spraying the spraying process requires uniform, thoughtful, comprehensive, meticulous carelessness, in particular, should pay attention to spray branches, fruits, highlight the key, do not stay in trouble, do their utmost to the late apple rotten fruit disease treatment, governance The control is at a minimum.
4. After picking the fruit after harvesting, it can be used to soak the fruit with 2%-6% calcium chloride solution, fruit disease safety or bacteria poison clear solution for 0.5-1 minutes before harvesting, which can significantly reduce the series of rotten fruit during storage. The probability of occurrence of a disease.
Sprinkler irrigation and micro-irrigation automatic control equipment With the development of economy, water resources, energy shortage and labor cost increase, more and more water-saving irrigation systems will adopt automatic control. This article focuses on the advantages and classification of automated irrigation.
The advantages are as follows:
(1) It is possible to truly control the amount of irrigation, irrigation time and irrigation cycle in a timely and appropriate manner, thereby increasing crop yield and significantly improving water utilization.
(2) Saving labor and operating expenses.
(3) The work plan can be arranged conveniently and flexibly, and the management personnel do not have to go to the field at night or other inconvenient time.
(4) Since it can increase the effective working time every day, the initial capital investment in pipelines, pumping stations, etc. can be reduced accordingly.
First, fully automated Irrigation System
The fully automated irrigation system does not require direct human involvement. The pre-programmed control procedures and certain parameters that reflect the water requirements of the crop can automatically open and close the pump for a long time and automatically irrigate in a certain order. The role of the person is simply to adjust the control program and overhaul the control equipment. In this system, in addition to emitters (heads, drip heads, etc.), pipes, fittings, pumps, and motors, it also includes central controllers, automatic valves, sensors (soil moisture sensors, temperature sensors, pressure sensors, water level sensors, and rain sensors). Etc.) and wires.
Second, semi-automatic irrigation system
In the semi-automated irrigation system, no sensors are installed in the field. The irrigation time, irrigation volume and irrigation period are controlled according to pre-programmed procedures, rather than feedback based on crop and soil moisture and meteorological conditions. The degree of automation of such systems is very different. For example, some pump stations implement automatic control, and some pump stations use manual control. Some central controllers are only one timer with simple programming function, and some systems have no central control. The controller, but only some of the sequential switching valves or volume valves are installed on each branch pipe.
Automated irrigation is the trend of the times. In the future water-saving irrigation projects, more and more automated irrigation systems will be applied.
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