First, the significance of artificial seedlings The use of appropriate artificial equipment facilities and supplemented by certain technical measures, collected in the natural sea area sea urchin plankton larvae seed production method commonly known as sea urchin sea semi-seedlings or sea urchin sea area Collect seedlings. The adults of sea urchins do not love activities, but there are planktonic larvae in their life history. Plankton larvae can float around with the currents, thereby expanding their distribution and keeping the race alive. In order to adapt to the habit of plankton, the larvae have cilia and other structures in order to float to the appropriate sea area and live in harmony with the water. This method is one of the more effective sea urchin seedling production methods to supplement the shortage of sea urchin artificial seedling production, improve the survival rate and effective utilization rate of natural seedlings in the sea area, and further reduce the seedling production cost. In the natural reproduction of Echinochorhynchus in Hokkaido, Hokkaido, the amount of natural planktonic larvae consumed in the sea area is very large, and the proportion of normal metamorphosis to juvenile sea urchin is less than 1%. If some collecting equipment is artificially set before the consumption of contaminated humans, breeding through mid-cultivation and subsequent propagation will greatly increase the survival rate of the larvae and increase the resources, which is not only effective for the proliferation of sea urchin resources in the sea area. And it is possible. Second, the conditions of the seedling collection site near the seedling area must have natural growth or artificial breeding of sea urchin resources, there must be sufficient procreative sea urchin with the ability to lay eggs. The concentration of pro-sea urchins is related to induced spawning and increased fertility. Due to the large body of water in the natural sea area, changes in the sea conditions, and the phagocytosis of hostile organisms, a large number of planktonic larvae of sea urchins have been lost and died. The mining area must have good environmental conditions: the sea area is clear, the tide is smooth, the impact is small, the floating mud is less, the transparency is larger, there is no large amount of fresh water or other pollution sources nearby and the sea is a swirling flow. When selecting the seedling area, the direction and direction of flow, especially in the sea area, cannot be ignored. Wind direction is an important factor affecting the distribution of larvae. The distribution density of general larvae on the windward bank is high, and the effect of collecting seedlings is satisfactory. Therefore, we must pay attention to the weather forecast before harvesting seedlings, determine the distribution and quantity of planktonic larvae according to the wind direction, and scientifically determine the mining area. The current is the determinant of the final attachment of planktonic larvae. Some of the inner bays have large variations in currents, and even if the number of broods is greater in areas that are close to the reciprocating stream, the effect of collecting seedlings will not be satisfactory. In the sea areas with "whirlpool currents" and "backwards currents", the fluctuations in tides are small, the flow velocity is slow, the water masses are relatively stable, and the density of larvae is relatively large. The effect of picking seedlings is good. In addition, the choice of mining sea area should also consider factors such as ease of operation and convenient transportation. It is best to pick the seedlings nearby. Third, when the seedlings are forecasted, the timing of putting in seedlings is the key to determining the success or failure of semi-artificial seedlings, and it is necessary to grasp the accurate delivery time. If it is put too early, the attachment base of the seedlings will be occupied by floating mud, mixed shellfish, and attached organisms, and it will invade the territories where the juvenile sea urchins are attached, affecting the effect of seedling collection; the best time to miss the seedling attachment will be missed if it is put too late. Failed to receive the ideal picking effect. In order to be able to conduct semi-artificial seedlings in a timely manner, the forecasting of seedling collection should be carried out. The method is as follows. 1. Prediction using anatomical method In the breeding season of sea urchins, sea urchin gonads can be checked every 1 to 2 days. The urchins are the most plump when they are breeding in the vicinity of gonads. When they find that most individuals have suddenly become wasted within 1 day to 2 days, it indicates that the sea urchin has reached its peak of reproduction. Specific anatomical methods: Use anatomical scissors to cut the membrane of the sea urchin and cut the mesentery of the mouthpart, remove the mouthpart, rinse the mucus and other impurities inside and outside the shell with clean seawater, and then cut along the step groove. Sea urchin shell, observe the fullness of the gonads. Conditional microscopes can be used to observe the condition of the egg. When the egg cells are generally full and lubricated, the sea urchin gonads have developed to a mature stage. According to the law of gonad growth in sea urchins, the spawning time can be determined. According to the time of spawning of sea urchins, with reference to the water temperature and other conditions at that time, the seedling-attaching time can be calculated and the seedlings can be harvested at the appropriate timing. 2. According to the forecast of the occurrence of the long-term larval larvae of sea urchins. Survey of sea urchin plankton larvae: generally use the No. 25 plankton network in different water layers of various sea areas to take trawl samples, and pay attention to changes in the number of day and night and fluctuations. After the sample was fixed in formalin, the large scale animals and plants were filtered out using a coarse sieve (with a pore size of about 400 Î¼m), and the small planktonic diatoms in the upper layer were discarded by precipitation. Finding the specific type of larvae needed in the bottom sediments, and performing the classification and counting work, the larval identification work is more tedious, but as long as careful observation, the characteristics of various larvae are still more obvious. It can also be based on the different breeding seasons of shellfish in the sea area, so as to determine what larvae in the sea are what marine animal larvae. Through qualitative and quantitative identification, and observation of the larval development period and the number of changes, determine the specific time to put the semi-automatic picking device, make a forecast to ensure good harvesting results. 3. Forecasting according to changes in water temperature, salinity, or phenology signs The seedlings of various sea urchins are related to changes in water temperature and salinity. Therefore, it is possible to deduce specific dates of picking based on the determination of water temperature and changes in salinity. Seedling forecast. It is also possible to predict the timing of seedlings based on the signs of phenology. 4. The main factors influencing the growth and development of planktonic larvae of sea urchins The growth and development of planktonic larvae in the normal natural sea area are often affected by the environmental conditions in the sea area. Among them, water temperature and bait are the most important factors for the growth and development of larvae. The temperature and growth rate of planktonic larvae of sea urchins in sea urchins are accelerating with the increase of water temperature within a suitable temperature range. The growth rate exceeds a certain range, the growth rate declines, the growth rate is hindered, and even growth stops, resulting in the death of larvae. The food habits of the sea urchins have undergone several obvious conversion processes throughout their individual development. During the planktonic larva stage of sea urchins, some planktonic unicellular algae were mainly ingested; after metamorphosis, the dietary changes were mainly benthic diatom ingestion. At the same time, some other types of adherent unicellular algae and some large seaweeds were also eaten. The gametophyte, small spore body, and some organic debris. The type and amount of bait directly affect the growth and development of sea urchin larvae. Fourth, determine the appropriate water layer of seedling collection sea urchin semi-artificial collection of seedlings collection effect and collection equipment and set the sea area, the acquisition of water layer, put time, etc. have a great relationship, therefore, the method is usually based on sea pelagic larvae Based on the results of the vertical distribution survey. According to previous survey statistics, the conclusion was reached that: The water layer to which the seedling attachment base should be put is within 10 meters. V. Picking equipment In Japan, since the early 1970s of the last century, the trials were conducted by the Ministry of Fisheries of the Central Fisheries Test Center in Hokkaido and the Aquatic Technology Popularization Guidance Office in the north of Houzhi, etc. Successfully, after 3 years, the number of seedlings has reached 4 million. Each seedling board can be accompanied with more than 100 seedlings. The number of seedlings per 50-meter floating rake can reach 50,000, and the maximum is more than 100,000. At present, domestic production of sea urchin seedlings has not yet been adopted this method, but it has been widely used in the species of scallops and red shells, and has achieved good results. The sea urchin harvesting equipment commonly used in Hokkaido, Japan has 30 cm 30 cm transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) corrugated board, 30 cm 30 cm bamboo mats, and plastic washboards; the seedling collection facility is 50 meters to 100 meters long. raft. 6. The process of picking seedlings will determine the general picking time based on the forecast of seedlings, and then the appropriate picking equipment will be put into the specific seedling water layer determined by the picking field to collect seedlings. After the management measures have been adopted, the management work is very important. The newly attached juvenile sea urchin is easily dissipated and run away. Therefore, the seedlings that have just been attached to the juvenile sea urchin should not be brushed and lifted. At this time, the management of the sea is mainly to see whether the floats and falling stones are normal. In addition, we must also strengthen wind prevention measures. Before the gale arrives, the seedlings will be lowered to a depth of 6m to reduce wind and waves. If there is a phenomenon of falling, throwing and wadging, it should be promptly resolved. Migrating seedlings refers to the process of transferring the juvenile sea urchins on the seabed seedlings plate to the fostering pool. The general time for transplanting seedlings can be determined according to specific conditions. The general reference indicators include the size of the juvenile sea urchin, the richness of the bait on the corrugated board, the preparation status of the cultivation pond, and so on. The specific time for transplanting seedlings should also be selected before 10 o'clock in the morning and after 4 o'clock in the afternoon. (Finish)
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